Movement of bromacil in a Hawaii soil under pineapple cultivation – A field study
Alavi, G., M. Sanda, B. Loo, R. E. Green, and C. Ray.
Recent discovery of low concentrations of bromacil in drinking water prompted the State of Hawaii to examine the leaching behavior of bromacil in pineapple fields. This study is a follow up to earlier work on bromacil concentrations in soil profiles in a pineapple field in central Oahu, Hawaii. Soil samples were collected for bromacil analysis at different times prior to and after application from a pineapple field that was previously surveyed by other research workers. The leaching pattern of bromacil was further investigated at two different application rates (2.25 and 1.8 kg ha_1). The concentration of bromacil in the topsoil about 100 days after bromacil application (1.8 kg ha_1) was substantially higher in 2002 compared to 1999. The distribution profiles were generally consistent with the one presented in the previous study. Residual bromacil was present in the entire sampled zone (3 m deep) about 18 months after the previous bromacil application. Over a period of 9 months, there was substantial dissipation of bromacil residue present in the topsoil. The residual concentration of bromacil in the area that received the reduced application rate (1.8 kg ha_1) were lower than those receiving the current application rate (2.25 kg ha_1) and the depth of penetration of the bromacil front was shallower at the reduced application rate. Because of the common practice of placing plastic mulch around the base of the pineapple plants to retain volatile nematicides, the applied bromacil was found to be concentrated in the areas between the plastic mulch, transported by runoff from the plastic. The study results encourage the use of less than the label led rate of application of bromacil for pineapple fields.