Technical Memorandum Report No. 53
An Investigation into Environmental Effects of Reuse of Sewage Effluent at the Kane’ohe Marine Corps Air Station Klipper Golf Course
Steven Y. K. Chang and Reginald H. F. Young
An investigation of waste water reuse by spray irrigation was conducted at the Kane’ohe Marine Corps Air Station (KMCAS) Klipper Golf Course on Oahu. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) waste water characterization of the KMCAS Sewage Treatment Plant, (2) groundwater quality analysis, and (3) air quality anazlsis of indicator bacterial levels during spray irrigation with waste water. Waste water analyses showed that the KMCAS Sewage Treatment Plant, employing the trickling filter process with a final polishing pond, is capable of removing a high percentage of biodegradable substances and suspended solids. The effluent appears to be of good quality for agricultural irrigation use. High concentrations of sodium and chloride, due to brackish groundwater infiltration into the sewage system, were not considered to be a hazard to the salt-tolerant bermudagrass. The two predominant soils on the KMCAS Klipper Golf Course, the Ewa silty clay loam (Low Humic Latosols) and the Jaucas (Regosols), appeared to be very effective in removing nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms from the applied effluent. The quality of the percolate does not present a hazard to the groundwater quality. Runoff from the golf course does not present a hazard to the adjacent surface waters. Analyses of spray irrigation fallout samples at the KMCAS Klipper Golf Course resulted in the isolation of coliform bacteria up to 91 m (300 ft) downwind of the sprinkler sources. Coliform bacteria recovery rates depended upon the initial coliform bacterial concentrations in the effluent and upon wind velocities. The presence and concentration of aerosolized coliform bacteria were not considered a public health hazard to golf course users, workers, or nearby residents.