SEARCH Technical Memoranda (1965-1992): ARCHIVE
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Technical Memorandum Report No. 84
Aly I. El-Kadi & Osman A. Elnawawy
The cell analytical-numerical (CAN) method was developed and applied for the solution of one-dimensional water flow and solute transport problems in the unsaturated zone. The flow equation is characterized by a nonlinear governing equation. The CAN method is similar to other numerical techniques in that it divides the domain into a number of computational elements, each homogeneous in nature. It differs, however, by implementing a local analytical solution within the element. The soil moisture flux (for the flow equation) or solute mass flux (for the transport equation) is applied at the interface between two adjacent elements to define an algebraic relationship between the values of pressure head or concentration, respectively, at three neighboring points. Assembling these three-point equations provides a tridiagonal system of equations that can be solved by the Thomas algorithm. The system describing the flow problem is nonlinear in nature, and is solved iteratively within an implicit linearization scheme. For water flow, the method is applied to a number of soil types and the results are compared to Philip’s semi-analytical solution and a numerical solution that is based on the finite-element technique. The results indicate the method’s high accuracy over a wide range of soil types. However, an upstream weighting approach is needed for coarser soils, a process that may lead to relatively large mass-balance errors. The high accuracy of the solute transport solutions is demonstrated through comparison against available analytical solutions.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 83
by F. DeWolfe Miller, Philip S. Moravcik, Nascha Siren, & Sanphy William
Shallow wells and individual rainwater catchment systems meet the water requirements of many Micronesians. The quality of this water is a matter of public health interest because this region suffers from a high incidence of gastrointestinal disorders and water-related diseases. Poor sanitary conditions and particularly inappropriate excreta disposal practices pose a significant threat to shallow groundwater quality. Groundwater is usually used for nondrinking purposes; however, when alternative water sources are unavailable groundwater may be consumed. Rainwater catchment systems are the preferred source of drinking water. Catchment systems are often poorly maintained and storage capacity inadequate to last through even brief dry periods. The relationship between ambient sanitary conditions and shallow groundwater quality was examined on the island of Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia. The relationship between construction parameters and maintenance of rainwater catchment systems and the quality of water contained in the storage tanks was also examined. At 13 sites, samples of groundwater were obtained either from specially constructed test-holes or from selected wells that met certain construction criteria. Sanitary conditions in the areas surrounding each site were evaluated. Special attention was paid to the proximity of latrines and to the presence of animals and standing water. Samples taken from these test holes and wells were analyzed for fecal coliform. Thirty-two rainwater catchment systems were examined for parameters of construction and maintenance. Samples from each tank were analyzed for total and fecal coliform bacteria. All determinations were made according to the membrane filtration method as described in the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16th ed. Generally, sanitary conditions were observed to be extremely poor. Groundwater in all of the test holes and wells was contaminated with fecal coliform (range = 16 to 360,000 colony forming units/100 ml). No correlation between any of the examined parameters of sanitation and the degree of contamination was established. Rainwater-catchment tank water was of superior quality compared to the groundwater (average total coliform = 110, average fecal coliform = 14 colony forming units/100 ml). The most important determinant of tank water quality was whether or not water from the island’s central distribution system was put into the tank.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 82
Akio Ogata & L. Stephen Lau
A theoretical function is derived to predict the transient position of the saltwater-freshwater interface set in vertical motion from an initially static equilibrium state. The function is found to be proportional to the square root of time after commencement. The proportionality is governed by the porosity and permeability of the aquifer, the difference in density of the two liquids, and the amount of head change. Laboratory sand-column experiments conducted generally validated the model. Precise experiments are desirable to elucidate a theoretical constant.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 81
Roger S. Fujioka and L. Stephen Lau
Groundwater is the sourre of 99% of the drinking water provided to consumers on Oahu, the major island in the state of Hawaii. However, virtually all approved sources of water on Oahu have been planned for use. As a result, plans for new urban development are currently being delayed for lack of approved water sources. A well to provide drinking water was dug by a private developer in an area of questonable groundwater quality. This investgation assessed the quality of the groundwater and determined whether sewage effluent, which was discharged into an unlined ditch in the vicinity of the well, had an impact on the quality of the groundwater. The quality of groundwater from a new well dug near the coastal plain on Oahu was determined by pumping out 1 022 m3 (270,000 gal) of water over 1.5 days and analyzing nine representative samples. No fecal coliforms (<1/100 ml) and only 1.6 fecal streptococcus/ 100 ml were recovered in the nine samples. Also, no human enteric virus was recovered in the four 0.38-m3 (100-gal) samples, an indication that the groundwater was not contaminated with sewage. One and three foot soil percolates collected under the ditch which transported sewage near the well were similarly analyzed and the results indicated that it would be most ulikely for sewage-borne bacteria and viruses in the effluent to percolate through the soil profile to contaminate the groundwater. The groundwater was also analyzed for eleven chemicals. The concentration of total dissolved solids (750 mg/l) was the only measurement which exceeded the MCL for drinking water, although the concentration of chloride (241 mg/l) closely approximated its MCL. Blending of this groundwater with high quality groundwater is a viable altemative of increasing the volume of potable water required for urban expansion.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 80
L. Stephen Lau, Gordon L. Dugan, William R. Hardy
The Ewa caprock aquifer has been a long-standing water source for southern Oahu, but the freshwater viability of the aquifer is being threatened with the gradual increase in the salinity level of pumped caprock aquifer water in recent years. Concern over enhancing the freshwater quantity and quality Of the Ewa caprock aquifer prompted a consortium of agencies to sponsor a demonstration Groundwater Recharge with Treated Wastewater Effluent project. The project, located in a sugarcane field on the Ewa Plain, consists of two California grass plots and four sugarcane plots, each approximately 0 .5 acre in size. One of the California grass plots is to receive, by overhead sprinklers, 4 in./day of nearby Honouliuli WWTP primary effluent, 5 days/wk; the other, one-half this application rate. Two of the sugarcane plots are scheduled to receive 10 in. of primary effluent by flood irrigation twice a week, the other two plots, once a week. Shallow and deep monitoring wells within, upstream, and downstream of the plots will be sampled and analyzed for various constituents. Baseline analyses of monitoring wells and Honouliuli WWTP effluent samples have been conducted.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 79
John Y.C. Chang
The turbulence normally encountered in water works transmission and distribution pipelines is sufficient to mix several sources of water so that the resultant blend is the weighted average of the different sources. Such in-line blending under the proper conditions can be advantageously utilized to blend water to achieve water quality objectives without any ad-hoc blending facilities. Some of the conditions are discussed and an operational in-line blending test in the Honolulu water system are described.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 78
Shan-hsin Chiang and Yu-Si Fok
Infiltration equations can be used to describe furrow and drip irrigation, groundwater recharge, and wastewater injection. Physical two-dimensional (2-D) infiltration equations for drip irrigation expressed in explicit, power algebraic forms were developed based on four consecutive time intervals which were derived in a previous study. Two-dimensional infiltration is assumed to be a composite of 2-D upward infiltration and downward infiltration components. These components of infiltration are computed on the assumption that the loci of the wetting pattern for 2-D infiltration are semiellipses. Because the developed equations are presented in explicit algebraic power forms, the physical parameters of the soil media, such as hydraulic conductivity, capillary potential, pressure head, soil porosity, and moisture content, can be expressed as dependent parameters of drip irrigation. The validity of the developed equations was examined in five laboratory experiments at different moisture contents. The results of coated infiltration show good agreement.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 77
Shan-hsin Chiang, Jen-hu Chang, Yu-Si Fok
The empirical orthogonal function was applied to analyze 40-yr annual rainfall data for 80 stations in the state of Hawaii, which included 21 stations on Hawaii, 18 on Maui, 5 on Molokai, 5 on Lanai, 16 on Oahu, and 15 on Kauai. The chi-square statistic was introduced to test the stabilities of eigenvectors, E-1, E-2, and E-3, for the state and its six major islands. The eigenvectors, especially E-1 and E-2, for the state and individual islands are quite stable within the 30-yr period. Eigenvectors within the 30-yr period with 5-yr data change are more stable than those within a 30-yr period with 10-yr data change. The 40-yr eigenvectors are even more stable than those in the 30-yr period. Both the maximum and conventional power spectral analyses were used to analyze the time-dependent coefficients of E-1, E-2, and E-3. The quasi-biennial oscillation (2-yr cycle) is the predominant cycle for the state and for Maui and Oahu. The El Nino cycle (4- to 4.4-yr cycle) exists in the state and the islands of Hawaii and Kauai, and the 3- to 3.3-yr cycle on Kauai. No significant sunspot cycle (11- and 22-yr cycle) was found on Hawaii.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 76
Yu-Si Fok & Edwin T. Murabayashi
Pilot field tests were conducted in the continuing conceptual development of using impermeable membranes as separating liners to store fresh stream water in an embayment. The storage of fresh water in the ocean was conceived as a less expensive way of storing surplus stream water for subsequent use than in land-based rigid dams and reservoirs. Three basic types of membrane storage enclosures were tested: floating reservoir, bag, and curtain. Each has its particular advantages and disadvantages which determine their suitability to any particular application. The testing took place in East Loch of Pearl Harbor, a protected inland estuarine embayment, to capture the freshwater flow from Kalauao Springs near Pearlridge on Oahu, Hawaii. The tidal effect, particularly low tide, has a significant effect on the enclosures. On the curtain, the effect was the amount of slack needed to retain the water captured at high tide as the tide recedes. With the open reservoir and bag, low tide left the enclosure grounded and unsupported on the muddy bottom. A site needs sufficient water depth to keep the enclosures afloat at all times. A rotating collar would prevent the bag and open reservoir from becoming twisted around an anchor point. A membrane floating canal and pipeline for water transmission on the ocean surface were also developed and tested successfully. In all testing, 6-mil polyethylene film was used as the membrane during this proof-of-concept stage. Sufficient progress has now been attained that in the next stage a first priority effort should be the selection of a suitable operational quality membrane. No adverse environmental impacts were detected during or after the pilot study.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 75
John F. Mink and Stanley T. Sumida
A consistent classification and nomenclature of the aquifer systems in the state of Hawaii do not exist in spite of the fact that groundwater is an essential water supply source in each island. The classification of water resources currently in use ignores aquifer features and boundaries and is based, instead, on topographic and judicial boundaries. One of the consequences is confusion in terminology because each investigator or describer of the resources often arbitrarily assigns aquifer names. A classification scheme is proposed which starts with the island as the largest component and the aquifer unit as the smallest. Each island is divided into Sectors in which similar generalities of hydrogeology prevail. Sectors are divided into systems in which hydrogeological and groundwater hydraulic comections are stronger, and the systems are further divided into units categorized by hydrological and geological features. A single code, consisting of a number for an island and letters for all other characteristics, identifies each aquifer unit. The code is open ended and may be expanded to include other aquifer features. For the six major islands, the classification scheme includes 21 sectors, 64 systems, and 192 aquifer units. The intent of this study is not to fix the classification at this time, but to provide an incentive for standardization.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 74
Upgrading Municipal Effluent by Pulsed-Bed Filtration: Sand Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Oahu, Hawaii
Gordon L. Dugan
The Hydro Clear pilot plant pulsed-bed filter cell unit (4 ft2 [0.37 m3] sand surface area) was operated at the Sand Island Wastewater Treatment Plant from mid-November 1982 to the first part of June 1983. Because of the disruptive events of the influent pump malfunctioning during the first part of the study, the change of the effective sand size from 0.45 mm to 0.65 mm, and the change of the pulse-mix setting from 6 to 12, the study was segregated into five separate periods which ranged from 45 days to nearly 7 days. In terms of continuous time of operation and number of analytical results, the most representative of the five separate study periods is the first of the five periods which covered a period of 45 days and included up to 26 sets of chemical analyses. With an effective sand size of 0.45 mm and pulse-mix setting of 6 before automatic backwashing, the overall average suspended solids removal rate was 57%; the total and filterable BOD5, removal averaged respectively 41% and 42%; and the total filterable COD removal averaged respectively 38% and 27%. The backwash/processed wastewater ratio averaged 18.4%, and the hydraulic loading rate averaged 2.24 gpm/ft2 (1.522 x 10-3 m3/s/m2) .
Technical Memorandum Report No. 73
Wesley M. Hirano and Reginald H. F. Young
Household wastewater can be divided into ³blackwater” (toilet wastewater) and “greywater” (non-toilet wastewater). Recently, schemes have been proposed for the segregation of the two streams with subsequent treatment and reuse of the greywater fraction, thereby resulting in a reduction in the amount of water used and wastewater produced, recycling of nutrients, and replenishment of the groundwater. Greywater, while making up about 60 to 650 of the wastewater flow, is weaker in pollutant concentration than blackwater. Greywater contributes much of the BOD5, about half of the suspended solids, little nitrogen, and most of the phosphorus to the total wastewater flow. It also contains low levels of indicator bacteria and so must be handled and treated properly before being reused. Strategies for segregation and management of the blackwater and greywater streams are outlined. Greywater treatment schemes that include anaerobic and aerobic treatment, disinfection or filtration have been proposed and studied by a few investigators; however, substantial data are still lacking. Household greywater reuse systems have been built and found to be simple, reliable, and aesthetically acceptable. A typical system would consist of a settling/storage tank with disinfection, followed bv a filter, and a pump and pressurized tank for distribution to the toilets or for lawn irrigation. Savings of 30 to 40% of the total water flow can be achieved. When reused for irrigation, a number of factors including the type of soil, topography, climate, selection of plants, method of irrigation, and quality of the greywater must be considered. Reuse of greywater for rural or suburban households in Hawaii may prove to be feasible due to the number of failing cesspools, the larger land area available for irrigation, and the rising cost of water. It could even be used in a residential house in a sewered community. At the present time, however, the cost of this system outweighs the benefits or savings achieved. In view of the increasing shortage of water though, a greywater reuse system may be an attractive alternative in the near future and should be investigated further.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 72
Macrodispersivity of Selected Hawaii Basaltic Aquifers
L. Stephen Lau and Ben E. Ishii
Longitudinal dispersivity was evaluated in terms of local transverse dispersivity for the permeable, thin layered Hawaiian basaltic aquifers on the basis of Gelhar’s macrodispersion theories and photo logs and electrical resistivity logs for several wells on Oahu, Hawaii. Transverse dispersivity was evaluated on the basis of salinity-depth curves of thick, freshwater lenses on Oahu and an assumed flow pattern parallel to the freshwater-saltwater interface. The longitudinal dispersivity values based on electrical resistivity logs involved less subjectivity and are more reliable than those based on photo logs. The longitudinal dispersivity values are on the order of magnitude of tens to hundreds of feet, whereas the transverse dispersivity values are on the order of tenths of feet. Geographic variation appeared to be considerable among the evaluated longitudinal dispersivity values but limited for transverse dispersivity values. Vertical variation of hydraulic conductivity in Hawaii layered basalt followed the log-normal distribution. Further, the correlation length of this space series was shown to linearly related to the average layer thickness.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 71
Disinfection of Bacteria and Viruses by Sludge Heat-Treatment Process at Sand Island WWTP, O’ahu, Hawai’i
Roger S. Fujioka, Wesley M. Hirano, and Philip C. Loh
The Zimpro heat-treatment process installed at the Sand Island Wastewater Treatment Plant was evaluated for its reliability in disinfecting fecal bacteria and viruses in the treated sludge. Samples of the untreated sludge and the heat-treated sludge cake were initially analyzed for fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and human enteric viruses. The detection of high concentrations of indicator bacteria in the sludge cake suggested that the heat-treatment process was not properly disinfecting the sludge. However, samples of sludge obtained from the plant immediately after the heat-treatment process yielded no fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Clostridium perfringens, or human enteric viruses, thus demonstrating that the plant heat-treatment process will disinfect the sludge of all fecal bacteria and viruses. It was subsequently determined that the heat-treated sludge becomes contaminated with fecal bacteria in the sludge storage tank, and that the use of improperly disinfected chlorinated sewage effluent to wash plant equipment or of pipes to transport untreated and heat-treated sludge contributed to the contamination of the heat-treated sludge. Additional evidence showed that the very acidic (pH 4.5-5.0), heat-treated sludge inhibited the multiplication of fecal bacteria. When the pH of the heat-treated sludge was adjusted to pH 5.5 to 6.5, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci -but not C. perfringens -multiplied. Although fecal bacteria cannot multiply in the heat-treated sludge at pH 4.5, other bacteria will. The growth of these nonfecal bacteria in the heat-treated sludge is speculated to raise the pH to at least 5.5 and thus allow the fecal bacteria to multiply.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 70
Roger S. Fujioka
The quality of stream water in Hawaii was determined by carefully analyzing samples of unpolluted streams, stream polluted with sewage effluent, sewage effluent, cesspool wastes, and storm drain runoff for concentrations of fecal coliform (FC), fecal streptococcus (FS), and selected physical and chemical tests. High concentrations (103-104/100 ml) of FC and FS could be recovered from samples of stream waters obtained from unpolluted and polluted sites. Most of the stream-water samples collected in urbanized areas, but upstream from the sewage effluent discharge site (unpolluted stream), contained higher concentrations of FC than the 200 to 400 FC/100 ml considered by state and federal laws as being polluted with fecal matter and as a possible source of enteric pathogens. Only after analyzing stream samples for concentrations and the ratio of FC and FS-as well as concentrations of phosphates- was it possible to determine which stream samples did or did not contain sewage effluent. The results show that the impact of sewage effluent discharge into streams on Oahu, Hawaii, cannot be properly evaluated by analyzing the stream samples for only FC as mandated by law. Moreover, it should no longer be assumed that stream-water quality upstream of the sewage effluent discharge point is superior to that of the effluent entering the stream. Conclusions should not be made based solety on measurements of stream samples taken downstream of the sewage effluent discharge site. To properly assess the impact of sewage effluent discharge into streams, samples of the sewage effluent-as well as stream samples taken upstream and downstream of the effluent discharge site- should be analyzed for FC, FS, phosphorus, and turbidity.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 69
Efficient Pricing and Financing of Urban Water: The Role of Development Charges
Richard Pollock and James E. T. Moncur
Conventional methods of evaluating and designing urban water prices are deficient in several important respects. Urban water is underpriced substantially, due to undercosting which in turn results from failure to adjust accounting data for inflation; to recognize imputted costs, such as interest on equity capital; and to fully provide for rising real costs of source supply. Further, water users often cross-subsidize one another due to uniform “postage stamp” pricing. This report uses data covering twelve Western U.S. urban water utilities to describe this undercosting and underpricing; describes a “first-best” pricing paradigm based on real marginal cost; outlines a role and basis for calculating, development charges; and simulates their effects with a discrete non-stochastic simulation model.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 68
Paul C. Ekern and Pow-foong Fan
Semiquantitative X-ray diffraction was used to detemine the relative abundance of minerals in sediments from three estuaries on Oahu, Hawaii. The watersheds of the three sites represent diverse environments: Kaneohe Bay, a windward northeast facing lagoon-bay complex; Maunalua Bay, a leeward south facing, heavily urbanized area; Pearl Harbor, a blend of urban-agricultural, estuarine complex on the leeward central portion of Oahu. Five suites of mineralogic assemblages were found: basaltic, secondary clay, hydrothemal-aeolian, marine carbonate, and authigenic. Carbonates prevailed in the sediments in Kaneohe Bay except near stream mouths. Primary materials of the basaltic suite dominated the terriginous sediments from the streams, but iron-rich secondary minerals were common and quartz and mica of aeolian origin and some hydrothermal christobalite were present. Secondary minerals and hematite were the main constituents of the suspended sediments carried to Maunalua Bay. In Pearl Harbor the basaltic suite was dominant near the stream mouths. Secondary clays and aeolian quartz and illite were found where salinity and currents allowed deposition. Authigenic pyrite was formed where anaerobic conditions developed in organic depositions. Montmorillonitic minerals corresponded to the source soils derived from tuff. Heavy metals in Kaneohe Bay resembled the soil and rock levels, but considerably higher levels were found accumulated in the fine sediments in Pearl Harbor.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 67
Richard E. Green and She-Kong Chong
The application of mathmatical models incorporating water flow theory to practical hydrologic problems (e.g., runoff, groundwater recharge, irrigation) requires a characterization of soil hydraulic properties. Such properties may vary widely over land areas of practical interest so that many measurements may be required for adequate soil characterizations, thus, the methods used must be relatively rapid and economical. Field methods which have been successfully used in Hawaii to measure the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity of surface soil are described. The methods are relatively simple and thus are useful for characterizing land areas on the scale of plantation fields or small watersheds. Underlying principles and detailed procedures are given for each method.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 66
Sang-Ok Chung, L. Stephen Lau, Clark C.K. Liu, and Henry K. Gee
Formation of a freshwater-sea water transition zone in a basal aquifer under pumping stresses was studied by sand-box experiments and by comparing experimental data with results from other theoretical and field investigations. Upconing height for different pumping rates and well penetration depths were measured in the laboratory. These experimental data were then compared with theoretical values computed with or without the sharp interface assumption. Dispersivity of laboratory sand was determined by matching the observed thickness of the transition zone with the theoretical value. The thickness of the transition zone was found to increase as the pumping rate and/or the partial well penetration depth increased. The results of the laboratory experiments were compatible with the values predicted by theoretical equations.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 65
Anthony R. Russo, Steven J. Dollar, and E. Alison Kay
An ecological study of the benthic and fish communities at Mokapu, Oahu, was completed in the summer of 1980 approximately three years subsequent to the installation of an ocean outfall by the City and County of Honolulu. Data were obtained from five transects between Mokapu Point on the northeastern tip of Oahu to Alala Point, approximately 6 034 m (3.75 miles) south, at depths of 6 to 24 m (20-80 ft). This study is subsequent to an initial survey completed in 1975 prior to outfall construction. Results show little or no effect from the operation of the outfall on the benthic and fish communities. There are no significant differences in the abundance, diversity, or composition of fishes from 1975 to 1980 except at the outfall site where new substrate was formed by construction. Between the 1975 and 1980 studies there are some differences in coral species cover indices, which are attributed to patchy substrate distribution rather than stress from the sewage outfall. Differences in species composition and distribution of micromolluscan assemblages may also be explained, at least in part, by patchy distribution of the substrate. Analysis of micromollusk assemblages shows that the proportions of dominant species in the assemblages of shallow and deep water sites have remained fairly constant over the years of study. In general the biotic community has not changed in the area studied over three years and equilibrium seems to have been reached in the benthic and fish communities, at least for the present. The construction of the outfall, surrounding rock substrate, and the swift removal of effluent by vigorous water movement have contributed, in the case of fish populations at least, to increases in abundance.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 64
Stephen F. Moore, G. Stephen Lowry, George P. Young, and Reginald H. F. Young
Wahiawa Reservoir, a multiple-use facility, has historically experienced significant water quality problems, especially low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations which are spatially and temporally variable. To assist decision-makers in selecting among alternative water quality management strategies, the Water Quality for River-Reservoir Systems (WQRRS) model, developed for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is applied to the Wahiawa Reservoir. The model is calibrated and verified to adequately represent dynamic behavior of vertical profiles of water temperature and DO. Data collected during December 1972 to November 1973 is used for calibration; data from July 1972 through November 1972 are the basis for verification. Although statistical analysis of calibration results shows no significant differences (at a 0.05 significance level) between observed and simulated water temperatures and DO, a variety of qualitative discrepencies are evident in these results. Simulated temperatures show a consistent positive bias of about 2oC; and simulated DO values tend to be too low during the winter and spring, although DO results correspond well with observed values during the critical low-flow period in the summer and fall. Model varification results show several important discrepencies (the source of which is unknown) from observed data. Hydraulic representation of the reservoir is questionable, as demonstrated by differences between simulated and observed water surface elevations. Temperature and DO results are statistically and signifcantly different from observed values. Observed data show more thermal stratification in the reservoir than is predicted by the model, which tends to overpredict surface DO values, but which corresponds well with measured deeper water values. Although the results demonstrate a need to further refine the model, three preliminary specific alternative strategies are simulated: phosphate removal from WWTP effluent, diversion of WWTP effluents, and removal (dredging) of sediment organics. Simulation results suggest that none of these strategies by themselves are sufficient to eliminate anaerobic conditions in the reservoir. The occurance of low DO is related to high surface productivites in the large reservoir of oxygen demanding sediments. Principal recommendations are to refine model callibrations, modify the model to allow simulation of artificial aeration, and further investigate alternative management strategies, including artificial aeration and combined management strategies.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 63
Frank L. Peterson and Charles D. Hunt, Jr.
During the period July 1978 to December 1980, a detailed study of the fresh groundwater resources of Kwajalein Island, Marshall islands, was conducted. A total of 23 observation wells was constructed to monitor the thickness, areal extent, and quality of the Kwajalein groundwater lens. During the period of study, recharge to the fresh groundwater lens ranged from 8.93 x 105 m3/yr (236 mil gal/yr) to 1.45 X 106 m3 (383 mil gal/yr), and averaged over 1.14 X 106 m3/yr (300 mil gal/yr). Fresh qroundwater lens storage fluctuated widely from about 9.08 x 105 m3 (240 mil gal) to about 1.21 X 106 m3 (320 mil gal), and averaged over 1.06 X 106 m3 (280 mil gal). Sustainable yield for the Kwajalein groundwater lens is estimated to exceed 1.89 x 105 m3/yr (50 mil gal/yr).
Technical Memorandum Report No. 62
John F. Mink and L. Stephen Lau
This report is comprised of four papers: (1) Composition and Hydrologic Character of Hawaiian Rocks, (2) Hydrologic Behavior of Hawaiian Ghyben-Herzberg Lens, (3) Critique of Early Mathematical Models, and (4) Bottom Storage: A Review of its Origin and Evolution and a Critique of its Validity. The first paper evaluates and summarizes the existing information pertaining to the hydrologic properties, including hydraulic conductivity of Hawaiian basaltic rock. The second paper evaluates and summarizes the existing factual information pertaining to the behavior of Hawaiian basal (Ghyben-Herzberg) lens. The third paper is a critique of three early mathematical groundwater models: Hoytls mechanical testing, Wentworth’s statistical correlation, and TEMPO’s numerical model. The fourth paper is an assessment of Wentworth’s concept on bottom storage of a thick lens. The intent of this series of papers is to provide an evaluated summary of important data, concepts, and methodologies developed in Hawaii over the many decades with particular reference to the unusual hydrologic and geologic volcanic and oceanic environments. These publications and unpublished material are scattered and generally not evaluated; many of them are not readily available. The four papers are an attempt to fill this information gap.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 61
Reginald H.F. Young, Estelle Shiroma, John Demetriou, Darryl E. Wong, and Susan Artman
Quarterly samples of Waipahu Incinerator quench water and Sand Island and Honouliuli waste water were analyzed for heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Semiannual sediment samples from the old and new Sand Island ocean outfall sites were also examined for both classes of toxicants. A few supplemental samples of both waste waters were examined for EPA designated priority pollutants as part of the City and County of Honalulu effort to obtain a waiver of secondary treatment requirements for major waste water discharges. Based on the results of this work, there appears to be no significant or alarming levels of the examined substances in the waste waters or sediments compared to data from the literature or from other Hawaiian waste waters and sediments. All monthly monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Sand Island discharge yielded values below detection limits. Thus, this discharge permit requirement is being satisfied. Project staff also assisted with on-the-job training of city laboratory personnel in the techniques necessary for heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbon analyses. Twenty-four flow-weighted composites were collected for the analysis of pesticides, metals, and base-neutral extractable compounds. Grab samples were collected for the determination of phenols, cyanides, and volatile organics. Volatile organics were not detectable by gas chromatography and further analysis by mass spectrometer was not performed. Acid extractable compounds (phenols) were not detected in all waste waters (less than 0.l ug/l). Only a few base-neutral extractables were detected. The only pesticides detected were dieldrin in the Mokapu and Waianae effluents and demeton in the Waianae effluent. The level of heavy metals detected was not considered significant compared to existing environmental criteria. Cyanides were, if present, below detection limits. Total phenols were not detected, except in the Sand Island sample at 6 ug/l. Overall, the levels of priority pollutants were extremely low as expected.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 60
Analysis of Sand Samples from the Sand Island Sewer Outfall, Mamala Bay, O’ahu (Interim Progress Report)
S. Arthur Reed
Sand grab samples were collected from nine locations at and around existing and proposed ocean sewage outfalls and at a control station. The preserved samples were analyzed for abundance of invertebrates. Stations in the vicinity Of the existing outfall (12 m deep) were characterized by high abundance of annelid tube worms which grew in huge, densely packed . clusters. Foraminifera and the green algae Halimeda sp. were absent or in relatively low abundance. In the vicinity of the proposed outfall (65 m deep) samples contained high abundance of Halimeda sp., moderate quantities of Foraminifera, and the solitary coral Fungia fragilis; no annelid worms were found. This pattern of abundance was similar to the control station. The pen shell Pinna semicostata was present at most deep water stations. Extensive beds of this mollusk are common in other regions along south O¹ahu.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 59
Tung Liang and Ping-Sun Leung
Many resource planning models have been developed, but few have been implemented. Frequently, months are needed to prepare inputs for a few seconds of analysis. The analysis output again requires weeks of plotting for easy comprehension. Although analysis time has been reduced drastically, preparation of inputs and display of outputs have become bottlenecks to the acceptance of most resource models. Planning is usually an iterative process. Original inputs must be frequently referenced to generate new planning actions. For example, transferring of water from wet to dry areas requires study of existing water supply conditions spatially. Creating an efficient input data basis for fast retrieval and display will speed up the planning process. The iterative process generates a large volume of output which must be quickly displayed, a fact which requires a fast display system. A print-plot display system for both inputs and outputs was developed to improve the planning process based on the resource model developed earlier by Liang (1976, 1978).
Technical Memorandum Report No. 58
Estimating Peak Discharges in Small Urban Hawaiian Watersheds for Selected Rainfall Frequencies, Kane’ohe Watershed, O’ahu, Hawai’i
Nancy C. Lopez and Gordon L. Dugan
Since its establishment in the spring of 1971, the Hawaii Environmental Simulation Laboratory (HESL) has attempted to simulate some of the consequences of alternative land use-economic decisions. The Kaneohe region on O’ahu Island, Hawaii was selected as a study area. Flooding, which has historically created hazard areas in Kaneohe, appears to be significantly altered by the rapid urbanization of the region. The problem of predicting flooding patterns in the Kaneohe region, as well as Hawaii in general, is complicated by the rather small area of the individual watersheds, the abrupt changes in terrain, and the short times of concentration, generally less than 1 hr. Using existing technology, a planning-oriented tool for predicting peak discharges resulting from various patterns of urbanization has been developed by HESL for Hawaiian conditions. The tool utilizes the U.S. Soil Conservation Service Runoff Curves, a unique time of concentration formula, and the U.S. Weather Bureau Rainfall-Frequency Atlas of the Hawaiian Islands. Areas within the watershed were segregated by ranges of slope into response zones. Input data include soil class and cover, hydraulic length, and average slope. The model was applied to ten individual watersheds within the Kaneohe region, and estimates of peak discharge for the watersheds were made for selected rainfall return intervals. Peak discharge values were determined for existing land use and for three different scenarios (hypothetical patterns of urban growth) for the year 1995. Tests of the model using the rather limited existing peak discharge records have been very encouraging.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 57
L. Stephen Lau, Philip C. Loh, and Roger S. Fujioka
Human enteric viruses were recovered from 0.19 to 0.76 m3 samples obtained from various natural marine water sites using the portable virus concentrator (Aquella). The concentration and frequency of viruses and coliform bacteria were highest within the sewage plume over the ocean discharge pipe and proportionately decreased as the sample distance from the plume was increased. Viruses were recovered at a maximum distance of 3 218 m from the plume but never from a station 6 436 m from the plume. However, since the same type of sewage-borne viruses were also recovered from boat marinas and from a stream entering the ocean, the sewage ocean outfall may not be the only source of viruses entering the ocean. Significantly, viruses were occasionally recovered from samples which were negative for coliform bacteria. The expected stability of human enteric viruses in the marine waters was determined to be approximately 48 hours using type 1 poliovirus as the model virus. All marine waters obtained from various sites off the coast of Hawaii were determined to be virucidal and evidence was obtained that marine microorganisms are the natural virucidal agents in these waters.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 56
Rotating Disc Sewage Treatment Systems for Suburban Developments and High-Density Resorts of Hawai’i
Garry T. Griffith, Reginald H.F. Young, and Michael J. Chun
Present experience with extended aeration plants in high density resort and suburban developments in Hawaii has been generally unsatisfactory due to (1) inadequate system management resulting from insufficient manpower resources, and (2) high energy input required for aeration. A large scale pilot rotating disc unit was developed and field tested as a practical alternative to such extended aeration systems. A literature review on rotating disc systems provided information on the basic theory of operation, pilot plant sizing and configuration, pilot system operation and data-gathering techniques, and hydraulic and organic loading rates. Laboratory operation of a bench-scale (6-in. diameter discs) unit led to the conclusion that movement of solids within the unit would be a major problem. A large-scale pilot unit (2-ft diameter discs) was designed and fabricated to remove 85% BOD from 1000 gpd raw domestic sewage. The unit provides for primary settling, four-stage bio-disc biological treatment, final clarification and capacity for 50-day sludge storage and anaerobic digestion. The pilot unit has been installed and operated at the City and County of Honolulu’s Pacific Palisades Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from loading rates of 2.2 and 4.0 gpd/ft2 are encouraging with 80-90% BOD and better than 90% SS removed. Further evaluation of the data as well as performance studies at other loading rates are continuing.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 55
Numerical Modelling of Liquid Waste Injection into Porous Media Saturated with Density-Stratified Fluid: A Progress Report
Waste effluent injected into an aquifer saturated with denser ambient brackish or salt water experiences a buoyant lift. As a result, the effluent migrates both outward from the well and upward in response to the combined effects of injection head and buoyant force. After the injection process has begun, several phenomena can affect the density, shape, and distribution in space and time of the resulting buoyant plume. The most important of these include convection and mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. Previous sandbox and Hele-Shaw. Laboratory modeling work have provided a basic qualitative understanding of buoyant plume movement in a porous medium. However, these Laboratory models cannot correctly simulate dispersion phenomena which may have significant effects on buoyant plume movement and distribution. Consequently, it is necessary to mathematically model the problem using coupled sets of partial differential equations which take into account the effects of dispersion and diffusion, as well as convection. For this problem, there are four unknowns (density, concentration, velocity, and pressure), requiring four equations. The four governing equations are: a motion equation (Darcy’s Law), a continuity equation, a dispersion equation, and an equation of state. In addition, boundary and initial conditions must be stipulated. In this study, two sets of boundary conditions are used: the first consists of conditions identical to those in the sandbox model studies, and the second models the geology of a specific prototype area. The resulting governing equations and boundary and initial conditions are numerically solved by both the finite difference and the finite element methods. Finally, the numerical models are calibrated with the results of the sandbox model studies mentioned previously. This report describes in detail formulation of the governing equations and the initial and boundary conditions, and preliminary finite difference modeling work completed to date.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 54
Bruce H. Keswick, Robert S. Fujioka, Nathan C. Burbank Jr., Philip C. Loh
Bromine chloride (BrCl) was evaluated as an alternative to chlorine as a disinfectant of water and waste water by comparing the efficiency of these two chemicals to inactivate type l poliovirus seeded in various aqueous solutions. In a nitrogen-free buffer at pH 6.0, the minimum concentration of BrCl required to effectively inactivate poliovirus (4-log reduction after 15 min. at 25oC) was 0.15 mg/l, whereas 0.3 mg/l of chlorine was required to accomplish the same effect. The virus inactivating efficiency of BrCl was not interfered within the range of pH 6 to 10. Furthermore, the addition of various concentrations of glycine and NH4CI to the nitrogen-free buffer solutions more effectively interfered with the virus inactivating properties of chlorine than BrCl. To simulate waste water disinfection, 1 to 5 mg/l of BrCl and chlorine were added to activated sludge treated sewage effluent seeded with poliovirus, mixed well, and filtered after 15 min. at 25oC. The results show that the inactivating effects of 1, 2, and 3 mg/l, dose of both chlorine and BrCl were equivalent and inefficient. However, at a dose of 5 mg/l, BrCl inactivated 5 logs of virus, whereas chlorine inactivated only 2 logs of virus. These results indicate that BrCl should be seriously considered as a potential alternative to chlorine as a disinfectant.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 53
An Investigation into Environmental Effects of Reuse of Sewage Effluent at the Kane’ohe Marine Corps Air Station Klipper Golf Course
Steven Y. K. Chang and Reginald H. F. Young
An investigation of waste water reuse by spray irrigation was conducted at the Kane’ohe Marine Corps Air Station (KMCAS) Klipper Golf Course on Oahu. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) waste water characterization of the KMCAS Sewage Treatment Plant, (2) groundwater quality analysis, and (3) air quality anazlsis of indicator bacterial levels during spray irrigation with waste water. Waste water analyses showed that the KMCAS Sewage Treatment Plant, employing the trickling filter process with a final polishing pond, is capable of removing a high percentage of biodegradable substances and suspended solids. The effluent appears to be of good quality for agricultural irrigation use. High concentrations of sodium and chloride, due to brackish groundwater infiltration into the sewage system, were not considered to be a hazard to the salt-tolerant bermudagrass. The two predominant soils on the KMCAS Klipper Golf Course, the Ewa silty clay loam (Low Humic Latosols) and the Jaucas (Regosols), appeared to be very effective in removing nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms from the applied effluent. The quality of the percolate does not present a hazard to the groundwater quality. Runoff from the golf course does not present a hazard to the adjacent surface waters. Analyses of spray irrigation fallout samples at the KMCAS Klipper Golf Course resulted in the isolation of coliform bacteria up to 91 m (300 ft) downwind of the sprinkler sources. Coliform bacteria recovery rates depended upon the initial coliform bacterial concentrations in the effluent and upon wind velocities. The presence and concentration of aerosolized coliform bacteria were not considered a public health hazard to golf course users, workers, or nearby residents.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 52
Ivan K. Nakatsuka, Eassie M. Miller, and Reginald H. F. Young
A laboratory study was conducted to determine the algal growth potential (AGP) of secondary domestic effluents on stream and marine waters in Hawaii. AGP methods developed by the Environmental Protection Agency were used with effluent-receiving water mixtures representative of nutrient levels found in existing effluent disposal situations. Results of this study are indicative that growth response follows similar patterns for conventional biologically-treated effluents in the four fresh receiving waters tested, with peak growth occurring at a 20% dilution of the effluent. Peak growth conditions occur at a lesser dilution, 40%, in sea water, but this would be an uncommon existing environmental situation in light of outfall design objectives and current practice. Field conditions exist in fresh receiving streams in Hawaii where the effluent dilution is 20% or less, so in situations of excessive stimulation or at lesser dilutions, some inhibition of planktonic growth occurs. The growth potential response of “standard” test alga with Hawaiian waste waters and receiving waters has been demonstrated.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 51
Simplified Techniques for Determining Water Conducting and Water Storage Properties of Soils
Lajpat R. Ahuja and Richard E. Green
Four simplified methods of simultaneously determining both hydraulic conductivity and water characteristic functions of a soil from field tensiometric data for drainage were investigated. These soil-water properties were assumed to be described by certain simple power or logarithmic functional forms. Two of the function parameters were the near-saturated values of soil-water content and hydraulic conductivity, which were assumed to be known (from measurements during infiltration preceding the drainage). The other two unknown parameters were determined either by the least-squares optimization over the complete range of data, or by the algebraic manipulation of data for two consecutive time values. The latter option allowed for a change in values of the parameters in a piecemeal manner. In both cases, the Richards equation of unsaturated soil-water movement was either handled as such in the differential form or was integrated once, before functional substitutions and solutions. A cubic-spline fitting was used for finding derivatives. The schemes of computation were tested and developed on a set of test data with known input parameters, and then applied to a set of field data. The methods involving piecemeal function approximations showed good results.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 50
Optimal Use of Water and Related Resources for Diversified Agriculture on Oahu, Hawaii: A Hypothetical Study
The study problem of diversified farming presented in this report represents one of the many hypothetical alternatives in anticipation of the possible future changes in agriculture patterns and land use on Oahu. Urbanization problems involved in the land use changes from agriculture into urban were not a part of the scope of this study. The two major objectives of this study were: (1) to formulate an objective function and its constraints for the variables involved in diversified farming in the southwest region of Oahu, and (2) to show that the objective function and its constraints can be solved by the technique of linear programming. Using the population projection for Oahu, 1970-2020, made by the Board of Water Supply, City and County of Honolulu, projections on available farm land, water, labor, and crops were made and benefit-cost analyses for diversified crops were performed for the study area. once the coefficients and the limitations of the objective and the constraint functions were determined, the study problem was solved by the linear programming method. The computer program for the linear programming solutions was written in detail in Fortran IV language. Results of this study indicated that (1) diversified farming in the study area should generate profits from selected vegetable crops for which local demand exists, and (2) the linear programing technique can be applied to obtain optimal solutions for problems involved in diversified farming.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 49
James E. T. Moncur
Oahu’s closed watershed reserves include over 6,880 ha (17,000 acres), almost 4.5% of the island’s surface area, from which public access is virtually forbidden. This access restriction grows from concern with protecting the quality of groundwater recharged into Honolulu’s water supply system. Several recent studies, however, suggest that some human incursion in wilderness areas, such as hunting, fishing and other light recreational activities, will not substantially harm water quality, and may even improve it. Concentrating on a portion of the Honolulu watershed including a large reservoir, Nuuanu Reservoir No. 4, this report examines the background of the current access policies and investigates available information concerning potential economic and physical consequences of opening the area to limited recreational activity.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 48
Yu-Si Fok and Reginald H. F. Young
Manoa Stream drains the Manoa Valley watershed located near the central part of the Honolulu metropolitan area. Past studies have characterized the streamflow, sediment, and water quality of Manoa Stream. However, the two existing streamflow gaging stations on the stream are located near the head of the valley and none in the downstream section. Hence, there is no good way to correlate the discharge at these gages with the discharge in the downstream sections of the stream. In this study, a permanent stream gaging station was established at a downstream location on the University of Hawaii campus. The development, instrumentation, method of operation, and maintenance of this gaging station are reported herein. Data obtained from this new University of Hawaii-Manoa Stream Gaging Station will allow meaningful measurements of streamflow and water quality characteristics of Manoa Stream.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 47
Technical Memorandum Report No. 46
Hiroshi Yamauchi and George M. Hudes
The ahupua’a of ancient Hawaii was a watershed-based institutional community. Water was of cardinal importance as a basis for, and object of, the organization and administration of these largely self-sufficient communities. The concepts and doctrines of ahupua’a management, some of them recently given reinvigorated legal standing by the 1973 “Hanapepe” decision of the Hawaii Supreme Court, will be inventoried and restated. The objective of this restatement is an evaluation of ahupua’a water resource management concepts for resolving current issues of competing resource demands and institutional jurisdictions. The restatement should offer an alternative of legal status for water resources management priorities and institutional jurisdictions, with water resources themselves serving as the political–economic foundation. Research, which will include literature searches and interviews with knowledgeable informants, will be conducted in three phases: Phase I, Ahupua’a Restatement; Phase II, Contemporary Water Resources Conflicts, Inventory, and Typology Development; Phase III, Evaluation of Ahupua’a Applicability Today.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 45
Myles N. Nakamura, Reginald H.F. Young
Urban runoff pollution potential can be linked to the constituents of street wastes as these wastes constitute the principal portion of runoff contaminants. This study was an attempt to correlate pollution associated with street litter with baseline quality data acquired in a previous study of Kalihi Stream. Correlations were made between street sweepings quality, length of street, land use, street surface characteristics, and rainfall intensity in order to estimate the concentration of pollutants in urban stormwater. The overall comparability of obtained estimates with existent stormwater quality data suggests the possibility of obtaining fairly acceptable quantification of pollution potential attributable to urban runoff by utilizing procedures described. However, the number of assumptions required leads to some inadequacies as reflected in inconsistencies in predicted BOD5 and COD levels with actual field data. The good correlation of population density-based formulae for street length with actual street lengths indicates a simple method for approximating street refuse pollution based on loadings per length of curb.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 44
Gordon L. Dugan, Reginald H.F. Young, Roy T. Tsutsui
It had been observed over a one-year period, January 1972 to January 1973, that the Mililani Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), located in central Oahu, Hawaii, discharged in its effluent only approximately 30% of the total nitrogen it received in its predominantly domestic raw sewage influent. During the period that high nitrogen removal rates were observed, the STP was operated as a secondary plant with raw sewage, after comminution and aerated grit removal, going directly to the “Rapid Bloc” activated sludge unit. Sludge stabilization was by aerobic digestion. During the fall of 1973, a primary sedimentation tank and an anaerobic digester, which was to replace the aerobic digester, were added to the components of the STP. The plant was designed for an average waste water flow of 0.93 mgd capacity before modification and 1.81 mgd after modification. Inasmuch as the relatively high removal rate (about 70% in 1972) rivals present expensive advanced waste water operations that were designed specifically for nitrogen removal, and considering the difficulty and expense of removing significant quantities of nitrogen in waste water, a study was initiated for a one-year period, 1 July 1973 to 30 June 1974, in an attempt to determine the cause for such a high nitrogen removal rate both before (Phase I) and after (Phase II) modifications to the STP occurred in the Fall of 1973. The waste water flow during Phase I, 9 July to 6 August 1973, averaged 0.665 mgd with an overall total nitrogen removal of about 54%. The major nitrogen loss, speculated to be by means of gaseous ammonia to the atmosphere, apparently occurred in the aeration unit, settling tank, and aerobic digester. During Phase II studies, January through June 1974, the mean monthly flow increased to a range of 0.838 mgd to 0.904 mgd; however, the mean total nitrogen loss decreased to 29%, a range that is typical for conventional secondary activated sludge operations. In both Phases I and II, ammonia nitrogen was the predominant form showing major losses.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 43
(November 1973 – September 1974) for the Department of Health State of Hawaii
Jaquelin N. Miller, Pamela M. Muller, and Alvin L. Char
A computerized system for the storage and retrieval of Water Quality data and corresponding stations has been compiled for the Department of Health (DOH), State of Hawaii. Specific data banks include: zones of mixing, waste discharge and effluent, nonpotable water quality data, and the Water Resources Research Center’s “Quality of Coastal Waters” project data. The data processed along with certain station location catalogues has been prepared and delivered to the DOH. An initial updating scheme is presented for adding new data to the existing Phase I and II, DOH data sets. A detailed account of the methods employed, programs, and their usage is provided in Appendices A, B, and C.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 42
Mercury Cycling in a Small Hawaiian Estuary
Samuel N. Luoma
Uptake from food and water and loss Of 203HgCl2 were studied in two detritus feeders, the polychaete Nereis succinea and the shrimp Palaemon debilis, from a small Hawaiian estuary. During 1973 to 1974, total mercury analyses were also conducted on sediment and biota samples collected from the estuary. Detritus feeders concentrated dissolved 203Hg from 160 to 310 times over the concentration in sea water. Little 203Hg was accumulated from labeled estuarine sediment; the steady state concentration of 203Hg in the animals was 0.0025 to 0.015 times the concentration in the sediment the animals ingested. Net excretion of 203Hg was slow relative to accumulation in both species. The total mercury content of shrimp and worms collected from the estuary showed a temporal pattern of variation. Samples of shrimp collected at five day intervals were used, with a mathematical description of the accumulation and loss of metal by the shrimp to simulate biotic mercury dynamics in the estuary. The simulation showed that mercury levels in shrimp in the Ala Wai Canal were never at steady state over the 1973-74 sampling period, and indicated the most important source of biologically available mercury in the estuary was some inorganic, solute form of the metal.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 41
Subsurface Waste Disposal by Injection in Hawaii: A Conceptual Formulation and Physical Modeling Plan
Frank L. Peterson and L. Stephen Lau
Emphasis on water pollution control and stringent regulations on waste water disposal into surface and coastal waters has focused attention on subsurface disposal as an alternative of great promise for increasing use in Hawaii. However, the need exists to ascertain the mechanics of injection well systems and the fate and effects of the injected fluid in the aquifer. A laboratory study was begun to examine the hydromechanics of waste injection into Hawaiian density stratified groundwater systems using both a sandbox model and a vertical Hele-Shaw model. The sandbox model is constructed to allow use of a variety of aquifer fluids and movement of dyed injection fluids will be followed by visual observation, liquid sampling, and photography. Both models are nearly completed and ready for preliminary testing and experimentation.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 40
James E.T. Moncur
At present most water planning and forecasting done by the Oahu Board of Water Supply is based on projections of population and per capita water “demand”. It is not population per se, however, which determines demand for water. Rather, price, income, demographic aspects, and the interrelated economic activities underlie the water use patterns of the region’s population. The latter of these attributes is the subject of input-output analysis. A recently completed input-output model for the State of Hawaii is adapted to serve as a water supply planning device. Although proper water use data is not now available for most significant water-using sectors, some rough estimates, borrowings from other states, and a few outright guesses serve to illustrate and interpret the model. An extensive and rather general set of computer programs is a major product of the project. These programs churn out four basic input-output tables–a transactions matrix, a direct requirements matrix, a direct + indirect requirements matrix, and a direct + indirect + induced requirements matrix–given the direct requirements matrix and the final demand levels. Standard income and employment multipliers are produced. Finally, water sector subroutines calculate a gross water use interactions matrix and several measures of direct and of direct + indirect water use coefficients and multipliers.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 39
Jacquelin N. Miller
A computerized information storage and retrieval system has been developed for water quality data collected and maintained by the Department of Health, State of Hawaii, from 1955 through 1971. The system provides for safe, permanent, storage and rapid retrieval of water quality data. In addition to the ability to retrieve a systematically organized total data list, the capability also is present to compute, list and plot certain statistics basic to data reduction and analysis techniques. A catalogue of the major water quality stations in Hawaii with their respective agencies is included. Recommendations are presented for the continued maintenance, development, and expansion of the WQISAR system.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 38
James E.T. Moncur
Of the major sectors in Oahu’s economy, sugar growing and milling together use by far the largest quantities of water. The three plantations still operating on Oahu in 1971 accounted for 57 percent of total withdrawals, even though this percentage has steadily declined over the past decade or longer. A persistent trend among plantations, moreover, is for mergers to occur, presumably to take advantage of economies of scale. This study was undertaken to inquire into the effect of scale on sugar production. Data for plantations on four of the Hawaiian Islands is applied to several procedures for estimating scale economics and economic efficiency. First, a “survivorship” test is used. Then the efficiency measures developed by M. J. Farrell are calculated. Finally, some regression estimates are determined.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 37
Bacterial Indicators in Kapalama Canal, Oahu
Jerry M. Johnson, Michael D. Ells, Reginald H.F. Young
A four month study was made of the levels of bacterial indicators in Kapalama Canal in the open portion from just mauka of School Street to Honolulu Harbor. The study was made between March and July 1971 and compared the levels of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococcus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the latter a pathogen only of man. Results showed that the levels of coliform bacteria as determined by the MPN test exceeded the State Water Quality Standards in all of the samples taken from both the Class 2 and Class A portions of the Canal. The levels of fecal coliforms exceeded the limitations of the Standards in 94% of the samples in the Class 2 and in all the samples in the Class A portions of the canal. Mean levels of fecal streptococci in the Class 2 and Class A portions of the canal were 99 x l02 and 16 x l07/100 ml, respectively. The fecal coliform: fecal streptococcus ratio for all stations exceeded 0.7:1 and was as high as 25:1, giving strong indication of sewage contamination possibly from, illegal household connections or cesspool leakage. This research was supported in part by the Allotment Project “Pollution in Hawaiian Watersheds” (A-027-HI). Portions of the results were originally published in the WRRC Technical Report No. 59, Water Quality of Kapalama Canal.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 36
Ho-Sung Oh and Hiroshi Yamauchi
Since statehood in 1959, the City and County of Honolulu has experienced unprecedented social and economic growth. The total population of Oahu increased from 500,000 to 630,000 during 1960-1970. The tourist industry has grown from 243,000 visitors in 1959 to 1,798,S91 in 1970. Completed construction jumped from 206.1 million dollars to 721.6 million dollars and personal income increased from 1,083.5 million dollars to 2,890.6 million dollars during the same period. Concurrent with these rapid changes, the fresh water consumption has increased from 19 billion gallons in 1959 to 35 billion gallons in 1970. In terms of an annual average daily water consumption, the increase has been from 53 million gallons per day to 100 million gallons per day. This is approximately an 88 percent increase in water consumption through the municipal water supply system. The Honolulu Board of Water Supply, over the last twelve years, has exhibited a much faster growth rate in water deliveries than the population increases. Water supplies by private agencies are mostly developed for the sugar and pineapple industries and the military. The growth of these uses has been rather constant over time. But if they are included, the total water consumption is approximately 4.3 times higher than that of municipal water consumption alone or 430 million gallons of water per day for the island of Oahu. Although more than 90 percent of the 430 million gallons is supplied by ground-water sources, the total ground-water discharge is presently still within the 525 million gallons per day maximum limit of developable ground water for Oahu. Based on past rates of increase in consumption, however, the limit would be reached before the end of the century. Furthermore, reviewing the past experience of regional imbalances of supply and demand and extreme seasonal peak demands, the water situation in certain areas might reach critical limits sooner than might be expected. In view of these facts, the meaning of the changes and direction of changes of water demands should be thoroughly reviewed to provide a sounder basis for the planning of future development and for the conservation of the island’s water resources. The objectives of this study on water demand were: 1. To reconstruct and evaluate the patterns and trends of water demand in Oahu. 2. To identify and describe factors affecting demand for water in various Board of Water Supply planning areas and for different uses. 3. To clearly delineate the role of these factors and their interrelationships. 4. To isolate and analyze any major problems including the institutional factors which might have a bearing on the patterns and trends of future demand. 5. To make recommendations toward improvement in water planning and conservation.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 35
Contributions of Water Resources Research Center of the Research and Development Efforts of the State of Hawaii
L. Stephen Lau
Increasingly, the role of University-based research is being considered by the community at large as a rich field of resource to be tapped. It was to promote further integration and cooperation between state agencies and the University’s research units that the conference sponsored by the Center for Science Policy and Technology Assessment and the Office of Research Administration of the University of Hawaii entitled, “From Ideas to Solutions: The Role of Research and Development in Solving Hawaii’s Problems”, was held. Directed at leaders in the private sector and decision-makers in local governments, the conference was concerned with research and development at the University of Hawaii with special emphasis on those projects which can help to solve problems now facing our state and counties. Areas of community concern for future or additional research effort were also discussed. The text and attachments which comprise Water Resources Research Center Technical Memorandum Report No. 35 was presented by its author, L. Stephen Lau, as a member of the panel on “Environment.” The conference was held on March 3, 1972 at the Ilikai Hotel. The three other panels, besides the panel on “Environment,” were “Health,” “Education and Social Services,” and “Economic Development.”
Technical Memorandum Report No. 33
James E. T. Moncur
The problem of evaluating water resources is approached in terms of value foregone due to a substantial extra-basin diversion. A model was constructed to optimize storage-release schedules at each of several parallel and serially-located units of a multiple reservoir system, producing firm and dump energy, irrigation and downstream water, and assimilation of biochemical oxygen demanding wastes. The model is based on the decomposition algorithm for linear programs, with dynamic programs at the subsystem level. A method of allowing individual serially-located subsystems (reaches) to “bid” for releases greater than indicated by the Master (linear) programs from upstream reaches is built into the model. Data for the Columbia and Snake Rivers were used to solve the model, first under “natural” water supply conditions, then under various assumed depletions. The difference between resulting optimal returns in the two cases is interpreted as the value foregone to a region due to a diversion of its water supplies. For the Columbia basin system, values estimated are $.95 and $4.75 per acre-foot, depending on how far upstream the diversion occurs. Keywords: Economics; Evaluation; Inter-basin diversion; Mathematical Programming.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 31
A Preliminary Study of Some Ecological Effects of Sugar Mill Waste Discharge on Water Quality and Marine Life, Kilauea, Kauai
Anthony R. Russo
Mill discharge from Kilauea Sugar Company discolors the receiving waters off the north coast of Kauai and increases the turbidity thirty-fold over that for normal waters. Coral growth is abundant in this area except near the mill discharge outfall. The epibenthic community is dominated by a single genus of coral, Montipora, and shows very little diversity. Bagasse and other cane debris were observed and photographed on intertidal reefs and in the subtidal zone as far as three miles from the outfall.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 29
Although efforts to include market concepts in the study of water demand appear in the technical literature as early as 1926 (Metcalf, 1926), it was not until 1959 that some of the more difficult conceptual issues relating to economic demand versus physical requirement were separated (Ciriacy-Wantrup, 1959). Since then, various efforts have been made both by water engineers and economists to further clarify these issues in both theoretical and empirical terms. This paper presents a review of some developments and suggests improvements in several areas.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 28
Pedro Tenorio and Reginald H. F. Young
Within the last year following the completion of Phase II reported in Water Resources Research Center Technical Report No. 33 (1969), additional significant changes in the pattern of land use in the Pearl Harbor-Waipahu study area have taken place. A summary of irrigated sugar cane field conversion into residential and industrial uses has already been presented for the year up to 1969. As noted in previous reports (Dale, 1967; WRRC Technical Report No. 33, 1969), because of the land use changes in the area, it is expected that parallel changes in the water quality of the ground water and overall ground-water hydrology will follow. In the memorandum report, an attempt will be made, based on previous and present findings, to predict the changes in the ground-water hydrology as a consequence of the accelerated rate of shift of agricultural lands to urban development.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 27
Reginald H. F. Young
The Water Resources Research Center initiated the project, “Pollution and Reuse of Wastewater Effluents and Stormwater in Hawaii,” in July 1969. The objective of this project is to determine physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of wastewater effluents and stormwater runoff from representative areas, relate the characterization to the State Water Quality Standards, and determine treatment required and suitability for reuse in irrigation or artificial recharge. It is a three-year project, now entering its second year. The focus of the first year’s work was on the characterization of wastewaters at selected treatment plants on Oahu. In attempting to select the treatment plants to be surveyed, it was realized that there was no catalogue or inventory of wastewater treatment facilities for the state which provided information on location, using agency, type of treatment, and method of effluent disposal. Anyone desiring such information has to individually query each agency in the state concerned with wastewater treatment or pollution control, thus creating an endless repetition of inquiries. It seemed only logical then that during the initial year this project include in its scope the preparation of a catalogue or inventory of wastewater treatment facilities. An effective water pollution control program for the state requires sufficient information on existing treatment and pollution control facilities and projections of needs for future facilities. Hence, the catalogue should provide a basis for guiding pollution control planning and programs.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 26
Doak C. Cox, Nathan C. Burbank, and E. Alison Kay
This memorandum report pertains to proposals to establish a number of zones of mixing in the coastal waters of Kauai in order to accommodate certain discharges of Kekaha Sugar Co., Gay and Robinson, Olokele Sugar Co., Kauai Electric Co., McBryde Sugar Co., Grove Farm Co., Lihue Plantation Co., Kauai County, and Kilauea Sugar Co., described in a notice of public hearings to be held August 24, 25, and 26 in Lihue, Kauai. The proposals have been made and the hearings have been scheduled pursuant to provisions in the State Water Quality Standards (Department of Health, Public Health Regulations, Chapt. 36 A, 1968). The State Water Quality Standards were developed on the basis of public hearings held during 1966 and 1967, at which were presented such meager data as was available on water quality and waste discharges, and in which members of the staff of the Water Resources Research Center participated. A special WRRC study of “Estuarine Pollution in the State of Hawaii”, Water Resources Research Center Tech. Rept. 31, vol. 1, 1970, made possible by the support of the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, included a summary of all information on pollution of the estuaries of Kauai, several of which are in or adjacent to proposed zones of mixing. Earlier proposals for zones of mixing in Honolulu Harbor and Kapalama Canal, Oahu, have been reviewed by members of the Center’s staff in WRRC Memorandum Report 22 and statements were presented at the public hearings concerning these proposals and a proposal for a zone of mixing in Maui. Of the authors of this report, Cox, a former resident of Kauai, has been involved in extensive work on the geology and hydrology of Kauai and some work on the oceanography of its coastal waters. Kay, also a former resident of the island, has been involved in extensive work on the coastal ecology of the island. Burbank has been engaged in the determination of waste water strengths and their effects upon discharge in coastal waters of Hawaii. This report has been reviewed by other concerned members of the staff of the Water Resources Research Center. However, any conclusions and recommendations in the report concerning the establishment of the proposed zones of mixing must be regarded as those of its authors alone. Neither the WRRC nor the University as institutions have any direct responsibility for administrative determinations under the Water Quality Standards.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 25
Timothy W. Brilliande and Larry K. Lepley
Zonation of algal communities in the intertidal areas of the Hawaiian islands has been correlated with zones of reduced salinity caused by submarine fresh-water springs. Laboratory salinity tolerance experiments showed that the green seaweed Ulva (known as “sea lettuce”) tolerated brackish water of half of normal ocean salinity, whereas, Acanthophora sp. did not. A field survey of salinity and algal species zonation at a coastal spring on the island of Oahu between Diamond Head and Black Point verified the laboratory findings and showed Ulva fasciata, Peyssoneila sp., and Gelidium sp. predominating in the brackish areas and Acanthophora sp. and Sargassum sp. in the areas of higher salinity. An algal-salinity survey between Kawaihae and Kona on the island of Hawaii showed that, along most of the coastline, algal communities were non-existent or too sparse for use as a salinity indicator. Spectral measurements and photographic experiments showed that two salinity indicators, Ulva sp. (low salinity) and Sargassum sp. (high salinity) could be mapped by color infrared photography from aircraft. Wratten #12 (yellow) and Kodak CC50C-2 (cyan) filters with Type 8843 Ektachrome IR, film were used to enhance the color differences of these species from each other and from their backgrounds. For limited, accessible areas, established communities of marine algae can be mapped directly to derive a map of time-averaged salinity anomalies. For large or inaccessible areas, aerial infrared photography with appropriate filters is recommended.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 24
A Preliminary Study of the Topographic Effects Upon Precipitation in Hawaii: Part II (Data Compiled: March 1970)
Edmond D. H. Cheng and L. Stephen Lau
This report, the second of a series, concerns studies made to develop regional precipitation formulas for Manoa basin on Oahu and a leeward region in east Molokai and to compare the formulas with those developed for Kalihi basin on Oahu which was previously reported in Hydrologic Data Network, Progress Report No. 1. The studies were conducted with the consultation and review of a panel consisting of D. C. Cox, J. H. Chang, S. Price, and R. Taylor.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 23
A Preliminary Study of the Topographic Effects Upon Precipitation in Hawaii: Part I (Data Compiled: March 1970)
Edmond D. H. Chen and L. Stephen Lau
This report relates the first of a series of studies designed to develop methods for evaluating existing precipitation data net and criteria for the design of precipitation net for ungaged areas in Hawaii. The studies are conducted with the consultation and review of a panel presently consisting of D. C. Cox, J. H. Chang, S. Price, and R. Taylor.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 22
Doak C. Cox, L. Stephen Lau, and Reginald H. F. Young
This statement pertains to the proposal to establish zones of mixing in Honolulu Harbor and Kapalama Canal, Oahu, in order to accommodate certain discharges of the Dole Company, Hawaiian Electric Company, and Libby McNeill & Libby, described in a notice of a public hearing (Docket R-40-70) published in the Honolulu Advertiser 18 May 1970. This proposal is made pursuant to provisions in the State Water Quality Standards (Department of Health, Public Health Regulations, Chapt. 37-A, 1968), under which also, the public hearing is to be held 9 June 1970.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 21
Water Pollution in Hawaii — 1969 Address at the Conference for Clean Air and Water Held on 7 November, 1969
Doak C. Cox
One cannot read newspapers or magazines, or listen to the radio, or watch television, without being aware that the effects of water pollution are becoming increasingly apparent, here in Honolulu, in Hawaii nei, all over the United States, and indeed throughout the world. In many parts of the world there have already been some most unpleasant consequences, large lakes now stink, major rivers kill fish, streams burn, seas tar and kill the seabirds, and water supplies are poisonous untreated and noxious treated.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 20
N. C. Burbank, Jr.
The relationship between water quality and its ultimate use has been established over the years. Often the quality of raw water available has governed the site selection for an industrial establishment and, equally important, has determined whether a community grew and prospered or failed to develop. Molokai has an abundance of water on its eastern coastal mountains and a lack of water on its southern and central plain. The surface water is generally of good quality while the ground water may be of extremely variable quality. Water quality criteria specifically describe the characteristics of water as being desirable for a general or a specific use. The determination of these characteristics can only be determined after a long period of use and observation. On observation of undesirable effects, the quantitative relationship between the water constituent and its effect must be correlated and the limiting water quality standard set. Often the water constituents may interrelate and may either intensify or nullify the effects of each on the other. The specific parameters of quality are determined from these observations.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 19
Clifton Warren and Larry Lepley
The AGA and the Bofors thermal scanners are evaluated on the basis of research requirements centered on water-resources investigations. Also included are comments on its uses in agriculture and on temperatures of man-made surfaces. Infrared real-time scanners are used as aerial reconnaissance tools which provide thermal images of broad areas in real-time presentation. These thermal images display relative temperature differences without immediate regard to absolute temperatures. For operational purposes, the instruments are evaluated mainly on the basis of their ability to provide an image of acceptable quality. That is, no attempt is made to evaluate the use of these instruments for recording the thermal imagery data on magnetic tape or any other data-processing methods. Finally, since it is of utmost importance to have a permanent record of the infrared image presented on the cathode ray tube of the display unit, the ability to obtain a good quality photograph of the image is also considered. Based on the previous use of the AGA Thermovision in geophysical exploration (Adams and Lepley, 1968), the Bofors Infrared Scanner is compared to the AGA Thermovision for qualitative and quantitative images. The AGA instrument was employed for a period of one month for field operations and the Bofors was employed for only a twelve-day trial period, specifically to test its capabilities.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 18
This report illustrates how a relatively small but growing university can engage in research using a remote sensing technique. Much of the equipment used was built or assembled by university personnel. The main effort was to study and develop techniques in geophysical exploration for water-resources research utilizing the 3 to 5.5 micron band of infrared real-time imagery. The many problems in this technique were identified and feasible ways for future development are suggested. Also outlined are some of the many applications of this research method.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 17
Mel. C. Caskey
This progress report is intended to summarize the activities of the geohydrologic study of the eastern slope of West Maui initiated in August 1966 by the Water Resources Research Center. This study is supported by joint funding from the State of Hawaii and Wailuku Sugar Company. Phases now completed and in progress include: review of the geological aspects of the area under consideration, installation of hydrologic monitoring systems, and compilation of data needed to establish a permissive sustained yield (safe yield). Also a two-day geophysical exploration project employing seismic techniques was carried out in the Wailuku area as an important adjunct to the above activities. A report on the seismic technique will be submitted later through the Water Resources Research Center. This report is appended by an expenditure report.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 16
Preliminary Evaluation of Ground-Water Exploration Boreholes Near Pahala, Hawaii
Frank L. Peterson
Recent study of the anomalously high ground-water configuration near Pahala, Hawaii using electrical resistivity soundings (Hussong and Cox, 1967) has been, in part, the guide for an exploratory test drilling program conducted by C. Brewer & Company. In the area of the electrical resistivity study, two 3-inch test holes have been drilled to obtain water-level and water-quality information, and cored to obtain rock porosity and permeability information. Boring #1 was drilled at 123.34 feet above sea level and is located approximately 75 feet makai (seaward) of the FAP Highway 11 in Ninole Gulch near the town of Punaluu. Boring #2 was drilled 56.21 feet above sea level and is located at the site of resistivity sounding S-8 in the above-cited resistivity study of Hussong and Cox also near the town of Punaluu. Boring #1 was drilled to a depth of 174 feet (50.66 feet below sea level), and the static water level varied from 3.69 to 4.39 feet above sea level. Boring #2 was drilled to a depth of 90 feet (33.79 feet below sea level), and the static water level was 26.11 feet above sea level. Owing to seeming uncertainty of the reported static water level in Boring #2, it is urged that the water level be re-measured by first completely bailing the hole and then letting it stand for several hours, or better yet overnight, before measuring the water level, Electrical resistivity data obtained from sounding S-8, at the site of Boring #2, indicated that fresh water could be expected to occur at least 18 feet above sea level. Electrical resistivity information generally is lacking at the location of Boring #1. However, data from sounding S-13, approximately 1 mile away and approximately midway between the two test borings indicated a more normal water table of approximately 2 feet above sea level.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 15
Estuarine Pollution in the State of Hawaii
Doak C. Cox
This report summarizes progress in the first half of a 1-year study of pollution of estuaries in the State of Hawaii undertaken by the University of Hawaii for the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration contract no. 14-12-446. The study includes a) an extensive survey of the problems of pollution of estuaries throughout the state, and b) an intensive study of the ecology, the sources and extent of pollution, and the economic implications of pollution control standards at Kaneohe Bay. Responsibility for the several sub-projects that make up the study is as follows: Sub-project Manager Statewide Survey – R.J. Fuchs, Kaneohe Study Sanitary Quality- N.C. Burbank, Jr., Mineralization- K.R. Gundersen, Organics- K.E. Chave, Plankton- R. Clutter, Sedimentation- R.M. Moberly and P.F. Fan, Alternatives- L.S. Lau, Economics- J.R. Davidson. The study as a whole is coordinated by a committee composed of V. E. Brock, N. C. Burbank, Jr., D. C. Cox, J. R. Davidson, and L. S. Lau. This report presents a definition of estuaries adopted for the study, a review of estuaries in the state known or suspected of being polluted, reports on progress in the several sub-projects involving Kaneohe Bay, and a working bibliography. It should be emphasized that much of what is presented here is preliminary. Although the estuaries for study have been identified, information has not been assembled for most of them. Conclusions cannot yet be reached in most of the Kaneohe field studies. Many of the material in the bibliography have yet to be scanned. The completion of the field work and the formulation of final conclusions are, of course, the aims of the second half-year of the project. The project personnel have profited from the meetings when the study began with Harold Berkson, who was assigned to the project as project officer by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, and in October 1968 with H. J. Odum of the University of North Carolina, who was making an overall, more general national study of estuarine pollution.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 13
W. M. Adams, F. Peterson, C. Lao, and J. F. Campbell
An offshore reconnaissance did not detect distinctly fresh water. However, eleven areas of discharge of brackish water, all with probable chloride concentrations greater than 1000 parts per million were detected. Although it is extremely difficult to determine the exact volume of discharge, a reasonable estimate of the volume of flow of brackish water discharges ranges from a few tens of thousands of gallons per day at nine discharge points to perhaps one million gallons per day from the two largest zones of shoreline discharge. No evidence indicates that the flow of brackish water from the eleven discharge points detected by this survey exceeds a few million gallons per day. All of the brackish water discharges were detected in bays. It is not known whether this represents the true pattern of discharge or whether brackish water being discharged along headland areas is very rapidly dissipated owing to the high concentration of surf energy associated with these features. Electrical resistivity profiles using a Wenner spread were taken at 185 locations and electrical resistivity soundings were made at three of these locations, using a Schlumberger spread. The soundings showed the ground water to be very conductive up to sea level, and also indicated that the interval of 70 feet used was appropriate for the profiling. The profile did not observe any anomaly that could be attributed either to a depression in the fresh-saline interface or to a higher permeability region having fresher water. Since profiling data are relative, interpretation is rather simple. By the combined use of sounding and profiling data, a layer of brackish water eight feet thick, equivalent to a head of two-tenths of a foot, should have been discernible. No fresh water was present in any detectable thickness.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 12
W. M. Adams, F. Peterson, and C. Lao
A preliminary survey of a portion of Parker Ranch. Coastal spring outwelling was surveyed and mapped. Conductance and temperature of the springs were taken along with observations of the surrounding area.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 11
Kenneth Ishizaki and Reginald H. F. Young
A pilot study was conducted on the ability of Tantalus cinders to remove organic matter and solids from percolating domestic waste water. Results showed little change in either parameter after passage through 2.5 feet of the cinder. The cinder had a coefficient of permeability of 35,200 gallons/day/ft2 (1.66 cm/sec) as determined in the laboratory. Under both constant and intermittent flow conditions the infiltration rate of the waste water decreased rapidly to as low as 1.07 ml/min from initial rates of approximately 1300 ml/min.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 10
A field evaluation of several electrical logging devices in an Hawaiian environment.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 9
Doak C. Cox and Chester Lao.
Uncertainties as to the position and behavior of the salt-fresh transition zone at the base of the important, thick Herzberg lenses of Oahu render suspect all determinations of the safe yield of these lenses involving estimates of storage change. A few deep test wells have been drilled to investigate hydrologic conditions in the lower parts of the lenses, but none of these wells has penetrated the lens and entered the salt water beneath. Hence the Water Resources Research Center was greatly interested in the availability for hydrologic monitoring of two large diameter test wells that were drilled in 1965 in the Ewa District for the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics for stratigraphic studies. Each of these wells passed through a considerable section of sediments of varying permeability and then entered the underlying Koolau basalt lava flows which constitute the main aquifer.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 8
Leonard A. Palmer
Ground water springs near the shoreline discharge a large portion of the Ghyben-Herzberg fresh water lens in the Hawaiian Islands. Conventional methods are applicable to measurement of rainfall, evaporation and runoff, but the irregular distribution and size of holes in the volcanic rock through which most Hawaiian water flows make accurate ground water flow measurements difficult (Fig. 1). More precise information on the rates of ground water losses through coastal spring discharge are important to the understanding and planning for future Hawaiian water supply. Numerous infrared sensing instruments and infrared sensitive films have recently been developed. A variety of reliable and economical methods of utilizing infrared radiation and reflection are being successfully applied to the study of rocks, plants, sea water and other material (Fischer, 1964; Gates and Tantraporn, 1952; Gates, 1959; Smith, 1956). Specifically, infrared radiation has been shown to be an effective indicator of fresh and sea water temperatures (Clark and Frank, 1963). A side result of infrared radiation studies of Hawaiian volcanoes with imaging radiometers was the detection of coastal springs ground water into the sea around the island of Hawaii. The temperature contrast between cool or warm ground water and sea water was detected showing 219 springs on the periphery of that island (Fischer et al, 1964 and 1966). (Fig. 2). Such springs have long been known to exist and were utilized even by ancient Hawaiian settlements. Many of the larger springs are easily recognized, and some have been developed for use, as in the Pearl Harbor area. However the smaller and more diffuse flows are not easily recognized. Infrared measurements potentially permit much better recording of the locations and relative strengths of the coastal springs. The imaging radiometers utilized by Fischer et all are “temperamental and difficult to operate without thorough training” and are expensive to procure and operate (Fischer, personal communication, 1966). More reliable and economical infrared sensors are available but their adaptation to Hawaiian coastal spring detection has not previously been attempted although they have been used by the U. S. Geological Survey in other areas (Brown, personal communication, 1966). A joint federal and state project funded for the year 1966-67 through the Water Resources Research Center at the University of Hawaii in part will investigate the applicability of various sensors to the measurement of thermal contrast in and around coastal ground water springs wasting into the sea (Office of Water Resources Research Project No. B-005-HI, “Geophysical Exploration for Hawaiian Ground Water”). Studies will include the examination of infrared radiation spectra at various wavelengths by films and thermistor instrumentation. Surface and underwater temperatures will be compared with radiometer measurements to determine the accuracy and water penetration of radiation sensors. From thermal radiation characteristics and their measurement, analysis will be made of the techniques for their application to coastal spring detection and to other ground water research.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 6
Report on the Phosphate Determination of Some Waimanalo Sea Water Samples And of Some Kaneohe Bay Samples of May 16, 1966
James Kumagai, Jr. Sanitary Engineer
June 1, 1966
Samples for Kaneohe Bay were collected by the State Health Department on May 16, 1966, and delivered to the WRRC laboratory for analysis for phosphate. The general location of collection points in the Kaneohe Bay are shown in the appendix as Figure 3, along with the computations pertinent to this report. In addition to the sea water samples, the grab samples of the Kaneohe STP effluent phosphates were determined using different dilution waters to demonstrate the effect of dilution water salinity and the variation in the results. In addition, Waimanalo sea water phosphates reported earlier (April 29, 1966) were recalculated and results were included in this report.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 5
James S. Kumagai
April 29, 1966
The results of this study indicated that the phosphorus concentrations in all samples were less than 5 micrograms per liter as phosphorus. Included in this report, are procedures and experimental observations which are felt to be helpful for future monitoring of phosphorus, especially in sea water.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 4
N.C. Burbank, Jr.
April 15, 1966
It has been proposed that underground discharge of effluent from a sewage treatment plant at Waimanalo be substituted for discharge through a long and expensive ocean outfall. As a contribution to the determination of feasibility of underground discharge of the treatment plant effluent at Waimanalo, and in accordance with an agreement reached at a meeting at the Division of Water and Land Development of 16 December, the Water Resources Research Center arranged a conference on the sanitary aspects of the proposed installation. The conference was held on Thursday, February 24, 1966 at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Conference Room at the University of Hawaii. In attendance were the following: D.C. Cox-U.H., Hiromi Okuda-C.C.H., N.C. Burbank Jr.-U.H., Chew Lun Lau-C.C.H., James Yoshimoto-DOWALD, E. H. Broadbent-R.M. Towill, A.Q.Y. Tom-U.H., B.J. McMorrow-S.H.D., Francis Aona-C.C.H., Francis Woo-S.H.D., Shinji Soneda-C.C.H., James Nakahara-S.H.D., Albert Tsuji-C.C.H. In summary this memorandum includes the discussion of the salient features under consideration. Three items of major consideration in the proposed Waimanalo Effluent Disposal project were indicated. These were (1) a program to characterize the sewage, (2) consideration of the offshore monitoring program and (3) future studies required.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 3
Doak C. Cox
March 21, 1966
Hawaiian geohydrology is best understood if continental concepts are forgotten and the Islands are considered as essentially porous and permeable lava sponges set in the ocean and saturated with sea water at their bases. Plentiful rain falls with relative uniformity in time on the windward sides or the tops of these spongy islands, but only in winter storms on their leeward sides. Infiltration rates are high and stream channels short and steep, so that most streams are intermittent or at least flashy. Within the sponges are, however, some impermeable septae retaining water at high levels and in places diverting it back to the surface as stream-stabilizing spring flow. The ground water escaping high-level retention in the sponges sinks to sea level and accumulates there floating on and displacing the seawater and discharging laterally in coastal springs. Surface storage capacities are slight due to the steepness and permeability of valleys. Development of surface water for irrigation is rarely feasible except where the streams are spring-fed. Spring flows may be augmented by tunnel development of high-level ground water. Where coastal prisms of sediments restrict discharge to the ocean, the basal ground water bodies may exceed 1000 feet in thickness and have heads in excess of 25 feet above sea level. Deep drilled wells, flowing or pumped, may in such places be used for development. Where such restriction does not exist, the basal ground-water bodies tend to be so thin that specially developed systems of shafts and skimming tunnels, known as Maui wells, are required to recover the fresh water floating on the salt.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 2
Doak C. Cox
February 18, 1966
It has been proposed that underground discharge of effluent from a sewage treatment plant planned at Waimanalo be substituted for discharge through a long and expensive ocean outfall. As a contribution to the determination of feasibility of underground discharge of treatment plant effluent at Waimanalo, and in accordance with an agreement reached at a meeting at the Division of Water and Land Development on 16 December, the Water Resources Research Center arranged a conference on the hydrogeologic aspects involved. The conference was held Thursday afternoon 10 February, 1966, at the University of Hawaii. In attendance were the following: Agatin T. Abbott, U.H.; Dan A. Davis, USGS; W. M. Adams, U.H.; Augustine S. Furumoto, U.H.; Stephen Bowles, BWS; Dan Lum, DOWALD; Mel Caskey, U.H.; Gordon A. Macdonald, U.H.; D. C. Cox, U.H.; Akio Ogata, USGS; Robert Dale, USGS; Leonard A. Palmer, U.H.
This memorandum report is based mainly but not entirely on the discussion at the conference. A draft was distributed among attendees for criticism, but responsibility for opinions expressed here remains with the writer, not with other attendees or the organizations they represent. In summary this memorandum includes discussions of the geology of the Waimanalo area and of the hydrology of the area. It is concluded herein that the proposal for underground effluent disposal seems reasonable and if successful would be much cheaper than the designed ocean disposal. A sequence of hydrogeologic exploration, pilot testing and ultimate development is recommended. In consideration of the magnitude and difficulty of the investigations required and the present commitment of manpower, the employment of at least one additional full-time professional hydrogeologist is recommended.
Technical Memorandum Report No. 1
Doak C. Cox
November 22, 1965
In spite of its almost universal application in oil exploration and growing application on the mainland in ground-water exploration (Pirson, 1963; Guyod, 1957), electric well logging has not to date been used in Hawaii. Because of the peculiarities of Hawaiian geology and hydrology (Stearns.,1946; Cox, 1954), it may be expected that the parameters and methods of application found useful here will differ somewhat from those in continental areas and only experience will indicate what will be of value. These notes have been compiled in the review of equipment for possible acquisition by the TTRRC for a research program on electric well-logging applications, with the particular immediate goal of logging parameters in wells of the Mokuleia area, Oahu, in conjunction with studies of apparent resistivity by surface methods. Leonard Palmer of the WRRC, Daniel Lum of the Hawaii Division of Water and Land Development, and Tom Moses of the U. S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park have contributed to this development. The notes are duplicated to facilitate review and criticism by the several interested members of the staff of the WRRC, HIG, USGS, and DOWALD. In the proposed WRRC research program, three criteria of importance in judging equipment are versatility, portability, and simplicity. Speed of operation is of small importance and capacity for great depth (> 1500 feet) is of no value. Compromises will be necessary, because versatility is, to some extent, incompatible with portability and simplicity. Following some notes on stock loggers available, a variety of electric well logging parameters and compatible functions are discussed below individually, with regard first to their general application to groundwater work, second to their possible applicability in Hawaii, and third to stock equipment availability. Information on availability of equipment is based largely on standard catalogs from the WIDCO, Neltronic and Industrial instrument companies but additional data is being sought from these companies and others.