Hawai‘i State Department of Health, Wastewater Branch/ State of Hawaii Cesspool Conversion Working Group
07/01/2019 – 01/14/2023
Michael Mezzacapo and Darren Lerner
This study was commissioned by the Cesspool Conversion Working Group (CCWG) to evaluate and analyze cesspool and conventional on-site wastewater treatment system (OWTS) conversion methods in other states. Six states were chosen and evaluated based upon the criteria established by the Data and Prioritization Subgroup of the CCWG, which are (1) proximity to a coastal environment, (2) the number of cesspools, and (3) recent legislation. This document briefly summarizes the state efforts, policies, and procedures regarding OWTS upgrades and is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the OWTS regulations. The document is organized by state and subdivided into eight categories: (1) regulation overview, (2) regulation enforcement and requirements, (3) methods to determine priority conversion areas, (4) methods to identify impaired waters, (5) nutrient reduction science, (6) conversion technologies/future approval, (7) conversion method and timelines, and (8) funding mechanisms.
Url to project page: